This lesson will teach STEM and design concepts. It is adapted from an 8-module curriculum centering around the use of 3D printed prosthetics and other assistive devices. This curriculum is aimed at grades 7-10 and provides teachers with a mechanism for creating highly engaging and meaningful learning experiences for students through the creation, customization,and engineering of a tool intended to introduce 3D printed assistive devices.
Materials Science https://sites.google.com/a/cpsdigital.org/peraplegic/human-prosthetics http://science.howstuffworks.com/prosthetic-limb2.htm http://www.explainthatstuff.com/prosthetic-artificial-limbs.html
amputation: The removal of an appendage due to trauma, bacterial infection or life-threatening cause. A traumatic amputation occurs when an appendage is removed as a result of the trauma without medical care, such as a bomb.
amputee: A person with an amputation.
components: The internal working parts of a prosthesis.
composite: A material that is a combination of multiple material components, designed to have specific properties, such as carbon fiber.
constraints: In engineering design, the limitations and requirements that must be considered when designing a workable solution to a problem.
cosmetic prosthesis: A prosthesis that enhances a person’s appearance or completeness, but has no functional purpose. For example, a replacement glass eyeball is a cosmetic prosthesis if it does not also restore vision.
cover: As relates to prostheses, material used to cover a prosthesis to make it appear more lifelike. criteria: In engineering design, the objectives that a final design solution is required to meet.
functionality: As relates to prostheses, the ability of a prosthesis to have a purpose or reason for designing it in a specific way. For example, a wood peg leg has less functionality than a modern prosthetic leg that enables an athlete to run competitively.
interface: The point where a prosthetic device meets a residual limb.
prosthesis: An artificial device, either external or implanted, that replaces or supplements a missing or defective body part, such as a tooth, eye, facial bone, palate, hip, knee joint, leg, arm, hand, etc. May be designed for functional or cosmetic reasons or both. (plural: prostheses)
prosthetics: The surgical, dental and/or engineering specialty concerned with the design, fabrication and fitting of prostheses.
regenerate: (biology) To renew or restore a lost, removed or injured part. residual limb: The remaining portion of a body’s appendage or limb after amputation.
tissue engineering: The use of cells, and biochemical and physiochemical factors to design new biomaterials to replace lost or damaged body materials that have specific biological functions. transfemoral: A prosthesis that replaces the leg from above the knee (includes the knee, angle, foot and toes).
transhumeral: A prosthesis that replaces the arm from above the elbow (includes the elbow, wrist, hand and fingers).
transradial: A prosthesis that replaces the arm from below the elbow (includes the wrist, hand and fingers). transtibial: A prosthesis that replaces the leg from below the knee (includes the ankle, foot and toes). trauma: An event causing severe damage to the body.
(see also lists below in each step)
Digital Fabrication Equipment Details
Map of the Lessons
Step One: Define disability
Essential Question: What do you think of when you hear the word “disability?
Bell Ringer (10 Minutes): In a full class discussion, have students generate a list (or Wordle) of words that answer the question: What do you think of when you hear the word “disability?
Show the video “We’re the Superheroes” – Rio Paralympics Trailer
Return to the list – are there any terms we would like to add, change, remove, etc. Have any students changed their concept of the term “disability”?
Teacher Talk (25 Minutes): Share “Upper Limb Differences” powerpoint with students
On Smartboard show the following videos:
In-class writing (20 Minutes): Using “Next Generation Assistive Devices” jigsaw activity – Have students write short responses (ungraded) on their preconceptions about disability and track their understanding of concepts.
Step Two: Science behind prosthetic performance
Essential Question: What are the areas of science that affect prosthetic performance?
Materials science https://sites.google.com/a/cpsdigital.org/peraplegic/human-prosthetics http://science.howstuffworks.com/prosthetic-limb2.htm http://www.explainthatstuff.com/prosthetic-artificial-limbs.html
Pre-assessment of student understanding based on responses on the know/want-to-know/learned (KWL) Chart
K: What do I know about 3D Printed Assistive Devices? W: What do I want to find out?
L: What have I learned?
Step Three: Understand a Design Process
Essential Question: What is the Design Process?
Step Four: Hack a Raptor
Step Five: Create Design Files for Knuckles & Fingers (40 Minutes)
A. Knuckle Ring
Step Six: Build the Grab-tor (Grabbing Raptor)
Step Seven: “Animalize” your Grab-tor
TEACHER NOTE: Following design of “Animalized” Grab-Tor, teachers will need to decide on the printing schedule and construction of the devices
NGSS MS Engineering Design Standards
Students who demonstrate understanding can:
MS-ETS1-1.Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.
MS-ETS1-2.Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.
MS-ETS1-3.Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success.
MS-ETS1-4.Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved.
Connection to Common Core ELA
Common Core English Language Arts/Science & Technical Subjects Standards:
RST.9-10.3. Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text.
RST.9-10.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.
RST.9-10.5. Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy).
RST.9-10.8. Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem.
RST.9-10.9. Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.
Common Core Reading – I Can Statements for Reading Anchor Standards
Reading Anchor Standard 1
I can read closely to determine what the text says explicitly
I can support logical inferences from the text when writing or speaking
I can cite specific textual evidence to support conclusions
Reading Anchor Standard 4
I can interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text
I can determine technical meanings
Reading Anchor Standard 7
I can integrate content presented in diverse media and formats as well as print
I can evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats as well as print
Reading Anchor Standard 8
I can delineate and evaluate specific claims
I can delineate and evaluate the validity of the reasoning of the claim
I can delineate and evaluate the sufficiency of the evidence for the reasoning
Reading Anchor Standard 9
I can analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics to build knowledge
I can analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics to compare the authors’ approaches
Reading Anchor Standard 10
I can read and comprehend complex literary texts independently and proficiently
I can read and comprehend complex informational texts independently and proficiently
Digital Fabrication Competencies: I Can Statements